The classical studies approach is clearly not working for all students of Old English. This electronic textbook is a companion to the translation program, King Alfred , and the sentences in King Alfred are integrated with the chapters of the book. After working through the explanations and the exercises in each chapter, you will be able to log on to the King Alfred program to practice your translation skills and receive individually customized feedback.
War and Drought Threaten Afghan Food Supply
It is the hope of the King Alfred project team that by helping the student to focus on problem areas and to spend more time learning things that aren't already known instead of repeating already mastered material that the process of learning Old English will be stripped of much of its drudgery. This grammar is structured to present material at the most basic, direct level possible.
We have kept explanations as brief and straightforward as we can, and all key terms that are linked to definitions in the Glossary of Grammar Terms. There is also a supplementary Appendix on Phonology and an Appendix on Manuscripts.
Drought | Definition of Drought by Lexico
Clark-Hall , and also blank paradigm charts that be downloaded, printed, and used by students to learn more effectively declensions and conjugations. We hope all of these elements make King Alfred's Grammar useful to beginning Old English students of all backgrounds, not only to native English speakers, but also to students for whom Modern English is a second or third language. It is our hope and, over the past few years, our experience, that students who make a strong effort to master Old English grammar right from the beginning can read Old English with the help of a dictionary by the end of the semester.
Examples of this kind of drought include too much irrigation or when low river flow forces hydroelectric power plant operators to reduce energy production.
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It is considered most effective for unirrigated cropland. The PDSI combines temperature, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil runoff and soil recharge data for a given region to produce a single negative number that indicates drought conditions. This index serves as an estimate of soil moisture deficiency and roughly correlates with drought severity.
The PDSI is the most commonly used index for drought monitoring and research. It has been widely used in tree-ring-based reconstructions of past droughts in North America and other regions.
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In the United States, the most devastating drought on record occurred in the s during the so-called "Dust Bowl" years. It caused the migration of millions of people from the Plains to other parts of the country, especially the West Coast. This ridging pattern has been in place during some of the West's worst droughts, such as the and California droughts — two of the worst dry spells in the state's history.
Persistent high pressure in the atmosphere curbs cloud formation and leads to lower relative humidity and less precipitation. In the West, prolonged droughts occur when large-scale high-pressure patterns persist for months or more, blocking storms carrying winter rains and snow.
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More recent U. In June , Drought Monitor. As of July , about 38 percent of the contiguous U.
As the human population increases in arid regions as well as wet ones, so will the demand for water, and — with water supplies dropping at a faster rate — so will the likelihood of drought. In fact, population booms can trigger droughts almost by themselves. According to projections by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, droughts will especially increase in subtropical areas, such as the U. The Union of Concerned Scientists noted that climate change can also lead to more precipitation occurring as rain instead of snow.